After the Axis defeat at El Alamein General Erwin Rommel's forces were forced to retreat across Libya, and into Tunisia, with the British forces perusing them. At the same time the Anglo-American landings in Morocco and Algeria, code-named Operation Torch, forced the Axis forces to make a stand in Tunisia, with the Allies pressing from the east and the west. In the beginning of 1943 a short German counter-attack at Kasserine Pass was stopped by American forces who, nevertheless, suffered heavy casualties. From that point on the German-Italian collapse was inevitable: pressed from both sides their defenses crumbled by spring 1943 and were forced to surrender.
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