At a glance
The Cold War was a limited and non-military confrontation that caused the arms race. It has developed after the World War II between two groups of states whose ideologies and political systems were diametrically opposed.

The USSR and its allies, who have been called "Oriental or Eastern Block" formed one group. The other group was formed by the USA and its allies also called "Western or Occidental Block".

The use of the atomic bomb in 1945 by the USA on Hiroshima and Nagasaki brought the US-Soviet relationships into conflict, according to several specialists.

During the World War II, the USA and the USSR were allies. After the War, which brought the Allied victory, tension has occurred between the two major world powers.

The Cold War dominated the postwar history, also engaging other states in this conflict: crises in Cuba, Vietnam, Afghanistan, etc. The Cold War was the confrontation between democracy and communism, between two different ideologies, between two worlds.

The Cold War began with the end of the World War II and ended with the collapse of the USSR in 1991. About 50 years.

The Cold War period represents the confrontation between the two superpowers – the USA and the USSR - essentially imperial, but with an issue focused on the fight between democracy versus communism.

The Cold War causes are multiple and understandable. There were ideological, economic, political.

Americans’ fear of a communist invasion in the world; Truman’s antipathy towards Stalin; Russia's fear of the US atomic bombs, the fear of a possible attack.

The Soviet antipathy towards the capitalism promoted and supported by the USA even in Europe.

The US political leaders believed that the expansion of the Soviet sphere of influence in Europe can be stopped only by force. Thus, during the Truman administration, a militarization campaign of the USA was triggered, in order to bridle the communism.

The Soviet expansion in Southeastern Europe and the rigging of the elections that took place in these countries immediately after the end of the World War II. The USSR need to have a safe western border. The tendency of the communism expansion in its soviet version.

Both the USSR and the USA have engaged in a struggle for supremacy involving the application of all the tactics excluding the armed struggles.

The term "cold war" belongs to the businessman and Roosevelt’s adviser, Bernard Baruch.

This term was first used in a speech in South Carolina on April 16, 1947, meaning the state of hostility that has developed between the USA and the USSR. Also, the phrase used by Baruch described the tensions arising between the Soviet Union and the Eastern European countries under its influence, on one hand and the USA and its allies in Western Europe on the other hand.

Tensions were evident after the division of the occupied Germany into four areas and the beginning of the Soviet administration in Eastern Europe. Tensions have been increased also by the Marshall Plan. The Soviet Union has banned the countries under its control to accept it.

The term "Cold War" has been made popular by the American journalist Walter Lippmann and entered the everyday language in 1947. The term "Cold War" was enshrined by the Spanish writer Don Juan Manuel in the fourteenth century, by describing the conflict between Christianity and Islam.

After World War II, the world and especially Europe were as if suspended between an impossible peace and an improbable war. Thus, in this moment, the world was in a global conflictual state, by an undeclared war, a war between social and political systems. World War II left a traumatized world, collapsed financially and economically.

The Cold War may be defined as a non-military conflict, open and limited, which developed after the World War II and ended in 1991 between the USSR and the USA, countries with diametrically opposed political systems and ideologies.

The speech by Winston Churchill in 1946 in the town of Fulton in the USA opened the Cold War, drawing attention to the danger that the Western democracies could be swallowed by communism, proposing a close Anglo-American alliance to defend them.

There was an acceleration of the arms race during the Cold War. This process has been stopped by Gorbachev, who wanted a fundamental reassessment of the Russian foreign policy and the negotiation of a new type of relationships with America.

The arms race has led to the division of Europe and, finally, to the division of the world into two camps. On one hand, the Soviet Union and on the other hand the United States.

In particular it was about the nuclear weapons and the position adopted by the two superpowers, namely: mutual intimidation by nuclear tests.

The probability of starting a nuclear attack by both parties has been considered to be very high and has marked the military doctrine of both parties.

The end of the Cold War was marked by a loosening of the arms policy and by signing treaties restricting nuclear arsenal on one hand and the neutralization of the existing one on the other hand.

The American scientists have created hydrogen bombs, which would be several times more powerful than the atomic bomb. It was believed that the bombs could trigger a nuclear chain reaction that would destroy the earth's atmosphere.

After the Soviet experiment in September 1949, the Truman Administration decided to produce the hydrogen bomb called "Super". In 1952, the USA detonated the first hydrogen bomb, however, only a year after the USSR had a similar bomb, but made in the USSR.

The Cold War between the USA and the USSR took place not only on land, water, underwater and in the air, but outside the earth's atmosphere as well, in space. The two sides have sought to humble their opponent, to overcome him in all aspects.

The competition for space began after the World War II, when both the Americans and the Soviets were trying to discover the secrets of the Nazi scientists in the missiles science, those skilled specialists which had enabled Hitler to assail London with V-2 missiles.

The US President Eisenhower has signed the article of incorporation of the American Space Agency. The Americans, under the leadership of Wernher von Braun, have successfully launched the first satellite and have achieved first flight in space.

In the first phase, the Soviets have managed to win the Space Race by launching the Sputnik orbital satellite, even though the Americans had a head start, capturing the German scientists who have worked on the project of the dreaded V-2 missiles under the leadership of Wernher von Braun.

The Americans were humiliated when the Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin has become the first man sent into space. But they have developed a long-term space strategy while the Soviets focused on a propaganda campaign which presented their progress in the world in a very positive light. As time was passing and the deadline imposed by Kennedy was getting closer and closer, the increasingly pressure to carry out the project of the man on the Moon was stronger and stronger.

The Sputnik 2 mission of the USSR sent a live dog, Laika, into space. The experiment has proved that living passengers can survive in space.

NASA, under the chief James Webb, took the lead of the race with the mission Apollo 8 sent on a lunar orbit. Seven months later, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin set foot on the moon. The Space Race is over.