The End Of World War Two
Some days after the atom bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the Soviet invasion of Manchuria, the Imperial Japan surrenders to the Allies, thus ending the World War II.

Since July, the Japanese navy has no longer run any operations in the Pacific islands and the islands’ invasion was only a matter of time.

Despite the fact that the Japanese leaders have publicly stated that they would fight to the last man, they were secretly negotiating with the Soviet Union for it to mediate a peace on favorable terms.

President Truman has received a day before the start of the meeting in Potsdam the secret information that "Manhattan Project" has been successfully completed, the USA had the atomic bomb. From aboard the "Augusta" cruiser, he ordered Japan to be hit with the new weapon.

At 8:15, the bomber "Enola Gay" launched the first atomic bomb, nicknamed "Little Boy", on Hiroshima, destruction and human losses were unimaginable in Tokyo.

Truman approved the second nuclear strike on one of the two cities, Nagasaki and Kokura. As Kokura was overcast, Nagasaki suffered the second nuclear strike. The day before in Moscow, the Ambassador Soto had been officially informed that as of August 9, 1945 the USSR declared war on his country.

The attack on Hiroshima and later the Soviet attack made the Prime Minister Suzuki and the Foreign Affairs Minister Shigenori discuss a ceasefire.

But the Soviets were preparing to attack Japan, as they have undertaken to do in Tehran and Yalta promises.

Violating the Soviet-Japanese neutrality pact, the USSR declared war on Japan and, soon after midnight, invaded Manchuko. The same day, a few hours away, a second US atomic bomb destroyed the Nagasaki city.

Japanese Army's senior management underestimated the threats. The Admiral Toyoda, Chief of Staff of the Navy, believed that the United States had succeeded in building only one atomic bomb.

A Supreme Council meeting takes place. Suzuki has just met with the Emperor Hirohito and argued that war can not continue. Shigenori is in favor of accepting the terms of the Potsdam Declaration.

By the end of the meeting, Suzuki, Shigenori and Admiral Yonai are in favour of accepting the Potsdam conditions, with the condition proposed by Shigenori, while the other three, the Generals Anami and Umezu, and Admiral Toyoda insist on a conditional surrender whereby Japan could handle alone both the disarmament and the war criminals and giving up the idea of Allied occupation.

Even during the meeting, the Council members received the news about the Nagasaki attack.

Emperor Hirohito announced, on the radio, Japan's surrender against all opponents. Two weeks later, Japan was occupied by the Allied powers. The surrender ceremony took place on September 2 aboard the USS Missouri battleship. The Japanese officials then signed the formal Instrument of Surrender document, ending the war.

The state of war between Japan and the Allies officially ended by the entry into force of the Treaty of San Francisco in April 1952. Four years later, in 1956, Japan and the Soviet Union signed the peace treaty.

After the Germany surrender, at the High Level Conference in Potsdam it has been decided to create the Council of Foreign Ministers, composed of representatives of China (Asia matters only), France, Great Britain, USA and the USSR. It would operate as a permanent body to conclude peace treaties with Italy, Bulgaria, Finland, Hungary and Romania.

At the first session of the Council of Ministers, the Soviet Foreign Minister has presented the draft of the peace treaties with Bulgaria, Hungary and Romania. At the last session, the peace treaties with Germany's five allied countries have been discussed and drafted and they have decided upon the time and the place of convening the Peace Conference: Paris, July 29, with the participation of 21 countries.

The negotiations for the peace treaties have taken place in a tense atmosphere, accumulating the heavy clouds of the Cold War. In Eastern Europe, the communist parties, supported by the Soviet Union, were continuing their offensive for the total seizure of power. In Greece, the communist insurgents were continuing their battle against the legal government, while Turkey was under Soviet pressure in the Black Sea and Caucasus.

The Peace Conference in Paris was followed by the signing of the Peace Treaty between the Allied and the Axis countries. The Allies were the United States, Britain, France, Soviet Union, Poland, Greece, Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia. On the side of the defeated, the Axis members, Italy, Romania, Hungary, Bulgaria and Finland.

The opening of the Peace Conference held in the Luxembourg Palace, convened by the victorious powers, to discuss the peace projects with Italy, Romania, Hungary, Bulgaria and Finland.

The clauses have stipulated that the signatories should take all the necessary measures "to ensure to all individuals within its jurisdiction regardless of race, sex, language or religion, human rights and fundamental freedoms, including freedom of speech, of the press, of the religion, of the political opinion and of the public meetings ".

But the Conference was not entitled to make any decisions, but only to make recommendations to the Council of Foreign Ministers of the great powers, the only body authorized to make decisions.

James Byrnes, secretary of state in the American government, stated: "The 10th of February was the result of a long and tedious series of conferences, meetings, conflicting discussions, conducted in a quite different atmosphere than the cordial one, interrupted by continuous unjustified suspicion which have created an oppressive atmosphere and have prevented the initial goodwill from prevailing .... the event that occurred on February 10 could have a tragic influence over the future of the world ", pointing out that " the treaties of Paris are

The treaties have allowed Italy, Romania, Hungary, Bulgaria and Finland to continue their responsibilities as sovereign states in international relationships. This included a number of clauses defining the war reparations and the minority rights.

Each Government undertook to prevent the revival of fascism and of any "political, military or semi-military organization, whose purpose would be to prevent access to democratic rights."

There have been territorial adjustments including the end of Italian colonial empire in Africa and border changes.

Romania was getting back northern Transylvania, ceded to Hungary by the Vienna Award, but was losing Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina against the Soviet Union.

Finland was losing 10% of its area against the Soviet Union. The request of the Soviets has been seen as a great injustice among allies, especially due to the sympathy Finland was enjoying, after the war against the Soviet Union.

Italy was ceding Tende and La Brigue to France, Zadar (Croatia's current territory) and Istria region (current territory of Croatia and Slovenia) to Yugoslavia and the Dodecanese archipelago to Greece.

The 32 participating countries have been divided into several groups, namely: the Great Powers, the "invited" states and the allied with Germany.

The Great Powers, the USA, the USSR, Britain, France and China, which had a decisive role (especially the first three) in decisions making and in imposing their point of view.

The states in the two groups, united under the name of Allied and Associated Powers had the right to vote. Other six countries were attending the conference in an advisory capacity: Mexico, Cuba, Egypt, Iran, Albania and Austria.

A group of 16 "invited" states: Australia, Belgium, Byelorussian SSR, Brazil, Canada, Ethiopia, Greece, India, New Zealand, Norway, Netherlands, Poland, Czechoslovakia, South African Union, the Ukrainian SSR and Yugoslavia. These states had the right to make comments and proposals that were to be put to the vote and, if accepted, passed to the competence of the Council of Foreign Ministers.

The last category was represented by the five states allied with Germany. They were regarded globally, without taking into account their contribution to the final victory in the war. The five countries that had the right to express their views only when required, could submit statements and materials, but they could not be seen as working papers and could not even be discussed unless acquired, as amendments, by the states the first two categories.

The Iron Curtain is depicted as a line dividing Europe into communist countries and non-communist countries. The Iron Curtain fell in 1989, with the revolutions in Eastern Europe. After the german surrender, which ended the World War II in Europe, US and British officers did not know how things were in the Soviet occupation zone in Germany, because of the lack of USSR transparency.

The British Prime Minister Churchill, very worried about what seemed to be the Soviet refusal to cooperate with allies on issues of common interest, sent a telegraph message to the USA President Truman saying that "an iron curtain has been drawn against the Western allies."

But the public career of the phrase "Iron Curtain" began at Westminster College in Fulton, where Churchill has released it in the world, where it would become the most famous and the most characteristic phrase associated with the Cold War. By an irony, the Curtain closely meets the provisions of the "percentages agreement".

Two months later, at the Potsdam Conference, Churchill used a variant of his metaphor when he protested to Stalin that the Soviets have surrounded in "iron fence" the British mission in Romania.

all these famous cities and settlements around them are in what I would call the Soviet sphere and all are subject, more or less, not only to the Soviet influence but to a very high and increasing measure, to the control from Moscow."

Churchill has resumed his initial phrase, describing the situation in Eastern Europe, saying in the House of Commons that "it is not impossible for a large-scale tragedy to take place behind the Iron Curtain".

The curtain idea was used in the context of the World War II, on 25 February 1945. The German publication Das Reich has predicted that in case of surrender of Germany "there will soon be an iron curtain behind which the mass slaughter of the people would take place."

Churchill has paid a visit to the USSR in order to share Europe with Stalin. Within the Fourth Conference in Moscow, the method by which control was going to be performed over the states in Southeast Europe has been established. The secret agreement, known as the percentage agreement, has used the percentage to indicate the influence awarded to each state. For Romania - 90% Russia 10% the others, Greece - 90% UK in agreement with the USA and 10% Russia, Yugoslavia - 50-50%, Hungary - 50-50%, Bulgaria - 75% Russian and 25% the others.