The Jomon people are different populations that lived in the Late Paleolithic and Neolithic Japan. Although they had many distinctive local customs, Jomon culture is also characterized by some cohesion features. They were hunter-gatherers with stone tools that, according to many scientists, produced the first pottery vessels in the history of mankind. In some respects, Jomon were undeveloped and developed in the same time, being one of the last Neolithic cultures that discovered full scale agriculture, but also making the first steps toward primitive agriculture of plant manipulation. The whole period is still controversial, so this part tries to present all the important theories and update them at the level of present time research.